The “-p” option usually handles the topic of “what file to patch”, but it could also mean your source code is far enough different that the file does not exist. Also, a diff can contain more than one diff which have been chained together into a single file, so part may work and part fail.
To find out, look at the top of the diff file (I’m assuming just one file to patch in the diff, but remember it could be multiple files chained together). There will be a file name which is a subset of that file’s full path, prefixed with notation such as “—” and “+++”. What are those for your specific case?
These paths indicate a “left” and “right” file name which was used in the original creation of the diff. Those paths could be completely different except for the tail of those paths, which might represent the patch author’s directory layout…but only the tail of those paths matter to you, as you are not on the author’s machine (or not likely to be). Each level of “-p” (such as “-p0”, then “-p1”, then “-p2”, then “-p3”, …) ignores a component of the path prefix. The goal is that from the location you run the patch command, that trailing part of those paths match the file name on your machine from the place you run the patch command.
So generally you will have the kernel source in full if you are working on drivers or configuration of the kernel, but linux-headers directory if you are only linking a user space application to kernel headers. It looks like the above patches require full kernel source, so you’d unpack the kernel source, cd there, make sure the diff file is available, and run patch from there (and you might need -p0, -p1, -p2 or similar adjusted).