I have not worked with video, but /dev/video0 is the side-effect of a running kernel feature. If the feature is in the form of a module, then missing the file could mean the module wasn’t loaded. Since you just made a change, perhaps the change did not make it in. In the case of dts files, the install is a bit less obvious, and so even if the module made it in perhaps the dtb did not.
If you look in “/boot/extlinux/extlinux.conf”, the final file name u-boot looks for is from the “FDT” key/value pair. This provides the name and location of the file the dts edit would have had to have generated during kernel build somewhere in the "arch/arm64/boot/dts/’ directory. If modules themselves were changed then the usual details about making sure CONFIG_LOCALVERSION was correct also kicks in.