Telnet is not enabled by default on any modern Linux distribution (nor even in most “old” ones). ssh should work, but there may be issues with keys being rejected from the Windows/PuTTY side. Default for a Jetson is to allow login to account “ubuntu” over ssh, with no specific keys required; once a session is started keys will be memorized, and thereafter changes in keys could be refused (part of denying a man in the middle attack). Keys might change from a flash, but since you have not flashed, then this would not be the case. Basically I suspect something in the Windows side (e.g., PuTTY) breaking the connection (or Windows firewall).
Video is probably just failing auto-configuration.
To see what is going on I highly recommend setting up a serial console (settings 115200 8N1). See:
You could also possibly try to ssh in from a regular Linux host…ssh should “just work”. If not, then you’d still have useful information because the ssh would give some sort of error message.