Jetson TK1 output issue

Regarding update, because the GPU driver is for an integrated GPU (iGPU is integrated with the memory controller), you cannot use the desktop PC drivers most computers use (which are discrete GPUs on PCIe). The standard update mechanism back from those days did not understand this. You should only upgrade via the official Linux for Tegra (“L4T”, which is Ubuntu plus NVIDIA drivers) install. See:
https://developer.nvidia.com/embedded/jetson-linux-archive

The Tegra K1 (TK1) is the oldest of the models with GPU, and is 32-bit. The last compatible release is L4T R21.8, which I think is Ubuntu 14 or 16:
https://developer.nvidia.com/linux-tegra-r218
(the last 32-bit release)

Note that the GUI installer, JetPack, did not exist in earlier releases and it was all command line. SDK Manager was a network layer on top of JetPack which was added later. Unlike the newer software, the basic command line install (on the host PC side) required:

  • Unpack the driver package, which creates subdirectory “Linux_for_Tegra/”.
  • Go to “Linux_for_Tegra/rootfs/
  • Unpack the sample rootfs there (this is purely Ubuntu).
  • Go back to “Linux_for_Tegra/” and run “sudo ./apply_binaries.sh”.

From that point forward the install software is ready to go. Those earlier releases had a default login account name and pass of “nvidia”. Later releases ended up with a first boot account setup.

The typical host side flash (the documents at that URL also give instructions), was:
sudo ./flash.sh jetson-tk1 mmcblk0p1
(this differs on third party manufacturer versions of the TK1)

If you are only working on command line, then Ubuntu 22 would work for the host PC, although it didn’t exist back then. Perhaps Ubuntu 22 won’t work, I have not tried, but the older command line was very forgiving. Certainly Ubuntu 18.04 would work on command line, but the problem you encountered is very very likely one of the VM you used and not of the Ubuntu release. Once you get to the JetPack/SDKM GUI installer you must use the correct Ubuntu release for the host PC (this is a GUI requirement not a flash requirement; the “driver package”, which is underneath the actual flash, does not have so many requirements).

Note that a VM often loses USB because the Jetson will disconnect and reconnect during flash. A real computer detects and deals with the reconnect, but a VM must be configured correctly for it to deal with it. There can be other VM issues as well, but this post might help:
https://forums.developer.nvidia.com/t/sudo-rm-r-in-my-jetson-agx-orin-64gb-module-now-nvidia-sdk-manager-flash-l4t-bsp-from-host-linux-pc-failed/274613/4

Please also note that you cannot use native Windows filesystem types, e.g., NTFS will appear to work, but the actual Linux install will be badly hurt. You would need an ext4 filesystem on the VM.

As for recovery mode, the recovery button is like a shift key on a keyboard, but it modifies power on instead of letters on a keyboard. Hold the recovery down, and then tap either power on or power reset and it will be in recovery mode (there is no requirement to hold down the recovery key after that). Failure to detect would be either the VM or the USB cable. There are a LOT of bad “charger” cables out there which work great for charging and badly fail data. About 2/3 of the “charger” cables fail for long term data transfer. The cable which ships with the TK1 is good quality and does not have that issue.