profiler counters dram_reads, gld_requests, l1_gld_misses pen & paper estimate

Hi, What’s the profiler counter “dram_reads” showing exactly?

I’m looking at some profiler results, and what I find confusing is that gld_requests and l1_gld_misses increase as expected when I change the source code to read more data, but dram_reads value stays more/less the same. Is there some formula to make a pen & paper estimate for dram_reads?

Thanks!