Flash should solve this, but if you clone rootfs first you can compare later…clone would take about 15GB of host space. See:
…once cloned, it is possible to edit the clone or reflash from the clone. Normal flash is of course also possible.
I suspect the driver install put something in the kernel module directory, or perhaps firmware, which is causing the issue. Very likely flash would fix the issue. The longer term issue though is getting your camera to work, so it becomes more important to clone. FYI, once you have a system up and running the way you like, e.g., shell set up as you want, it’s a good idea to clone just as a backup.
On your next go at installing the camera, you might want to add a second backup boot entry with an alternate kernel version naming working as a “rescue” entry…you’d need the serial console to take advantage of that.