Because I see this output we know it is a UEFI style partition setup:
Found valid GPT with protective MBR; using GPT.
This implies you can avoid using
fdisk and look only at
gdisk when using those tools.
Your new laptop had a serious kernel error which the old laptop did not have. An excerpt from the new laptop:
[ 302.616767] irq 18: nobody cared (try booting with the "irqpoll" option)
[ 302.616771] CPU: 5 PID: 0 Comm: swapper/5 Tainted: P O 5.8.0-33-generic #36~20.04.1-Ubuntu
[ 302.616771] Hardware name: HP HP Pavilion Gaming Laptop 17-cd1xxx/8745, BIOS F.13 07/16/2020
[ 302.616772] Call Trace:
[ 302.616773] <IRQ>
[ 302.616777] dump_stack+0x74/0x9a
[ 302.616780] __report_bad_irq+0x3a/0xaf
[ 302.616781] note_interrupt.cold+0xb/0x61
[ 302.616782] handle_irq_event_percpu+0x73/0x80
[ 302.616783] handle_irq_event+0x3b/0x5a
[ 302.616784] handle_fasteoi_irq+0x9c/0x150
[ 302.616786] asm_call_irq_on_stack+0xf/0x20
[ 302.616786] </IRQ>
[ 302.616788] common_interrupt+0xc1/0x150
[ 302.616789] asm_common_interrupt+0x1e/0x40
[ 302.616791] RIP: 0010:poll_idle+0x69/0xbb
[ 302.616814] Disabling IRQ #18
[ 311.566988] alcor_sdmmc alcor_sdmmc.0: Timeout waiting for hardware interrupt.
[ 311.572507] alcor_sdmmc alcor_sdmmc.0: alcor_reset: timeout
[ 311.572551] alcor_sdmmc alcor_sdmmc.0: error -123 requesting status
[ 311.722481] mmc0: tried to HW reset card, got error -123
[ 311.722482] mmcblk0: recovery failed!
[ 311.722490] blk_update_request: I/O error, dev mmcblk0, sector 0 op 0x0:(READ) flags 0x0 phys_seg 1 prio class 0
[ 311.722492] Buffer I/O error on dev mmcblk0, logical block 0, async page read
[ 311.722557] alcor_sdmmc alcor_sdmmc.0: error -123 requesting status
[ 311.722558] mmcblk0: recovery failed!
From what I can tell there are hardware failures on the new laptop. The reason the SD card could not succeed was probably not due to the SD card itself since it works on the old laptop. Regardless, there may be some filesystem inconsistencies on the SD due to failures while testing.
There are a number of reasons why this could fail on the new laptop. One is simply due to lack of correct (and updated) drivers or firmware. I have no way to speculate on specific details, but you might describe on the new laptop how the SD card is plugged in. For example, through a HUB or directly to an integrated reader. If you have an external reader using USB, then you might want to describe this as well. Also, is it correct that the new laptop is using Ubuntu 18.04?