The winding and cull rules in Vulkan are the same as in OpenGL. The difference is that the viewport origin is at the top-left rather than at the bottom-left. This means that the triangle ({-0.5f, -0.5f}, { 0.5f, -0.5f}, { 0.5f, 0.5f}) is top-left, top-right, bottom-right if rasterized directly to the viewport and is therefore back-facing with counter-clockwise winding.
There are multiple ways to solve this, in Vulkan 1.1 or with VK_KHR_maintenance1 you can use a negative viewport height to get the same output as OpenGL. For 3D you can invert the sign for y in the projection matrix. Or you use the DirectX way, which also has the origin at the top-left but uses clockwise winding order by default.