When I SSH log in to my devkit, it prompts :Permission denied, please try again

My Xavier NX devkit has been running on the client’s end and I haven’t logged in for a long time.
When logging in remotely, it prompts:Permission denied, please try again.
Only I know the password and only I can log in to the device.
I am certain that my previous actions will not result in password changes or user attribute changes.
Can you provide me with directions and suggestions for troubleshooting? thank you!

To add, I have been using JetsonHacks’ rootOnNVME. So I can remove the SSD and log in from emmc instead. And the user password of the/etc/shadow file can be replaced with the user password of the/etc/shadow file on the SSD. After installing the SSD, I can log in normally

Do you still have a login of any kind? If so, does “sudo ls” work? Also, what do you see from:
df -H -T

When you flashed, were you using a Windows partition (even if it is VFAT from an SD card or thumb drive)?

Not sure if you can connect debug uart. If yes, you may try to login through uart to check if the issue is specific to using ssh.

I only created one login account, and the type of emmc and SSD is ext4

I haven’t tried to connect debug uart When this situation occurs again, I will try to connect debug uart.
Perhaps this issue is not specific to using SSH, as I have also connected an HDMI display and logged in on Xavier NX, and the results are the same.

Are you certain your user has a valid home directory? If you log in locally, and not through ssh, does this work? If it does work, immediately after login, what do you see from:

ls -ld .

i 'm sorry! Reply so late. Similarly, I am unable to log in locally. Unless I replace the user password in the ‘shadow’ file on the SSD first.

whoami : nvidia
pwd : /home/nvidia
ls -ld :drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 4096 May 15 13:40

I’m going to suggest that something in the installation process to the SSD was not quite correct. I’m going to suggest that you reinstall onto the SSD. Make sure you can boot normally to eMMC first, and thus can verify no password file is incorrect. Replacing the shadow file(s) as a fix implies something is seriously “incorrect” (the installation should never have this result).

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