The file host_config.h at: C:\Program Files\NVIDIA GPU Computing Toolkit\CUDA\v9.1\include\crt includes the line
#if _MSC_VER < 1600 || _MSC_VER > 1911
But for Visual Studio 2017 v15.5.6 _MSC_VER has the value 1912, matching the related compiler version:
Microsoft ® C/C++ Optimizing Compiler Version 19.12.25835 for x64
A temporary change in host_config.h to refer to 1912 did NOT result in a successful build so there would appear to be other incompatibilities as well.