The corrupt filesystem should be considered a serious issue, although whatever is corrupt may be something you don’t need. Hard to say.
Normally one would use a clean shutdown of a system. As the filesystem syncs the journal is removed. In an unclean shutdown the journal remains. Then upon reboot, the journal is replayed in reverse to remove the uncommitted writes which would cause corruption. At some point the incorrect shutdown can produce errors which exceed the ability of the journal in protecting against corruption. This is the case for you…the journal is not able to correct for the numerous errors.
I see nothing wrong on the lspci, it just lists two devices. To see errors with advanced error reporting you’d need to use “sudo lspci -vvv”. However, unless mmcblk0p1 is mounted on a PCI device, then this isn’t going to be related to the filesystem (though malfunctioning PCI devices could cause an unclean shutdown).
Same for USB…unless mmcblk0p1 is mounted on USB, then this won’t be related to the filesystem corruption (but it could be a cause of unclean shutdown).
To complicate matters, if USB or PCI drivers are what is corrupt, then this might increase the unclean shutdowns and blame USB or PCI when it is really a corrupt driver. I doubt this is occurring, this is just a small possibility.
My advice: Clean install. Even if you could fsck and make the filesystem non-corrupt, this would still leave parts of the filesystem missing. Make sure shutdowns are clean. If a crash condition is causing failed shutdown, then find out what the cause is before continuing.