Texture Interpolation with 16-bit integers types rounding to nearest value?

I’ve been having trouble getting CUDA to perform a correct bilinear interpolation on 2D textures of (signed or unsigned) short ints: interpolated values always seem to be rounded. However, interpolation on 8-bit integer data types seems to work fine and return unrounded values.

Test code (taken from the top answer of the following stack overflow question: http://stackoverflow.com/questions/17075617/setting-up-a-cuda-2d-unsigned-char-texture-for-linear-interpolation)

#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>

#define TYPE unsigned char
#define TYPE_MAX 255.f

//#define TYPE unsigned short
//#define TYPE_MAX 65535.f

texture<TYPE, 2, cudaReadModeNormalizedFloat> tex;

__global__ void kernel (int m, int n, float shift_x, float shift_y) 
    float val;
    for (int row = 0; row < m; row++) {
        for (int col = 0; col < n; col++) {
            val = TYPE_MAX * tex2D (tex, col+0.5f+shift_x, row+0.5f+shift_y);
            printf ("%f  ", val);
        printf ("\n");

int main (void)
    int m = 4; // height = #rows
    int n = 3; // width  = #columns
    size_t pitch, tex_ofs;
    TYPE arr[4][3]= {{11,12,13},{21,22,23},{31,32,33},{251,252,253}};
    TYPE *arr_d = 0;

    cudaMemcpy2D(arr_d, pitch, arr, n*sizeof(arr[0][0]),
    tex.normalized = false;
    tex.filterMode = cudaFilterModeLinear;
    cudaBindTexture2D (&tex_ofs, &tex, arr_d, &tex.channelDesc,
                                       n, m, pitch);
    if (tex_ofs !=0) {
        printf ("tex_ofs = %zu\n", tex_ofs);
    printf ("reading array straight\n");
    kernel<<<1,1>>>(m, n, 0.0f, 0.0f);
    printf ("reading array shifted in x-direction\n");
    kernel<<<1,1>>>(m, n, 0.5f, 0.0f);
    printf ("reading array shifted in y-direction\n");
    kernel<<<1,1>>>(m, n, 0.0f, 0.5f);
    cudaFree (arr_d);
    return 0;

Results with TYPE #define’d as unsigned char look correct: interpolating between 11 and 12, for example, correctly returns 11.5. For ‘unsigned short’ types, however, the result seems to be rounded-to-nearest value (e.g., 11), and never returns something like 11.5.

I don’t see any documentation that indicates that the behavior between interpolating uchars and ushorts should be so different. Is this a hardware limitation? A hidden rounding mode being implemented in the assembly code? A bug?

The texture interpolation hardware used fixed-point arithmetic using a 1.8 format, best I recall. As a consequence, I think you will find that when using a texture with unsigned char elements, the minimal increment you can observe in your scaled output is 1/256, while the minimum increment for a texture with unsigned short elements is 1.

So what you are observing would seem to be an issue of granularity, not rounding. I believe there is a detailed explanation of texture interpolation calculations in one of the appendices of the CUDA C Programming Guide, not sure whether it documents the relevant internal fixed-point formats. [Later:] This is in section F.2, and it does mention that scale factors are stored in a 1.8 fixed-point format.

Thank you for your reply, I misunderstood the implication of the fixed-point arithmetic.