You can get CUDA functionality in Fedora Linux by either installing the nvidia driver that’s in the rpmfusion repository or by installing the Nvidia closed driver (for example out of: cudadriver_2.3_linux_64_190.18.run). For various administration reasons I’d much prefer to use the rpmfusion one but I wanted to find out what functionality if any would be lost. I think the ‘run’ style driver from Nvidia allows CUDA profiling to work but this isn’t supported with the rpmfusion driver? Is there anything else missing?
New CUDA releases tend to come slowly, which means that, at any given time, the last CUDA Toolkit has only been tested with distributions that are at least 6-12 months old.
Usually, the biggest obstacle to forward compatibility of the CUDA Toolkit is a new gcc (as you found). New Linux distribution releases which include a new major release of GCC are far more likely to have compilation problems with CUDA.