I think you’re confused about the role of “current” and “voltage.” Ohm’s Law is your friend!
A load may attempt to “draw” some current (perhaps at a certain voltage.) It will attempt to draw all the current it needs, and no more. The current source (battery) will have some ability to supply current at its given voltage, before the voltage drops too much, this is generally modeled as “source impedance.” (e g, a 5V battery with source impedance of 0.1 Ohm will provide 4.9V when you draw 1A from it.)
For switching voltage converters, which is pretty much everything that will generate 5V (and not 3.7V, or 120V AC, or whatever the “raw” input is) the function is not linear – the DC DC converter effectively has zero or even negative impedance. However, nothing is infinite, so the DC DC converters will hit some “limit point” after which they will either:
- Reduce voltage (CC/CV models)
- Cut off current entirely (hiccup models)
- Burn up (cheap Chinese converter boards from ali express)
What does all of this mean? It means that if you provide a 5V 10A power supply to a simple LED that only draws 20 mA, the power supply won’t “push” 10A into the LED. The LED will draw 20 mA, the power supply will supply 20 mA, and all will be well. Same thing for a Jetson, as long as the Jetson draws less current than the ability of the power supply to supply while keeping voltage stable, everything will be fine.
It doesn’t make a lot of sense to talk about “current regulator” in the sense of a computer module like the Jetson, although for certain applications such as LED lighting, you will use a current limiter to avoid overheating of the LEDs. Instead, for the Jetson, you need a voltage regulator, that’s ready to provide whatever current the Jetson demands, which is something that changes very quickly depending on what the CPU and GPU is up to.
The Micro USB connector or cable won’t “limit” anything, but it has a built-in resistance, which will drop the voltage more the more current is drawn through it. Additionally, this voltage drop will turn into heat, so at some point you burn off the insulation of the cable or melt the connector off the board – although you’re likely to see the voltage drop to an unacceptably low level before that actually happens.